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Maybe you already know what a monosaccharide macromolecules, this article will explain the existence in living beings, for more details, please read this article.

Monosaccharides Macromolecules on Sentient Beings

Monosaccharides are simple saccharides that can not be hydrolyzed into even the smallest unit in a soft atmosphere though. The simplest monosaccharide or aldotriosa gliseraldehid and isomerinya is dihydroxyacetone or ketotriosa note Chart 14.6. Both of these compounds is a trioses because it contains three carbon atoms.So a monosaccharide, not only can be distinguished by their functional groups but also of the number of carbon atoms.
 
 Figure 14.6. Monosaccharidealdotriosa simple andketotriosa

Monosaccharides most commonly found in the body of an organism is a monosaccharide that is built with 6 (six) carbon atoms, known as glucose. In the molecule there are five hydroxyl groups and one aldehyde group attached to the carbon atom. Glucose has two isomers, namely mannose and galactose, mannose difference between Glucose with hydroxy groups located at the C atom number 2. Similarly, the difference between glucose and galactose are located on hidroksinya group, an OH group on the right to galactose, while glucose is located on the left, for more details see Figure 14.7.

Bagan14.7. Formula up
compound D-Glucose, D-mannoseand D-galactose

Glucose with molecular formula C6H12O6, is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms.Glucose is a polyhydroxy aldehyde (having CHO group). Five carbon and oxygen form a cyclic one, called "ring piranosa", is the most stable cyclic form to six carbon aldose beratom.Glucose with molecular formula C6H12O6, is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms.Glucose is a polyhydroxy aldehyde (having CHO group). Five carbon and oxygen form a cyclic one, called "ring piranosa", is the most stable cyclic form to six carbon aldose beratom.
 
In piranosa ring, carbon atom binds to the hydroxyl side groups and hydrogen atoms except for C no.5, CH2OH group attached to a carbon atom number 6. These ring structures are in equilibrium at pH 7, the structure of D-glucose in the form of a ring is shown in Figure piranosa 14.8. In addition to having isomers, Glucose also has enantiomeric isomer is a mirror of himself, namely D-glucose and L-glucose. But the fact is found in organisms, which only in the form of D-isomer. In the form of a straight chain, we can easily distinguish the D or L form of conformational isomers at carbon number 5 or the asymmetric C atom. The notation D comes from the right-handed means right, and the notation L means levo or left, is used as a marker of hydroxyl groups.
While in the ring piranosa also has two distinct forms, namely the position of the hydroxyl group at carbon atom first. If the hydroxyl group positioned at the bottom of its hydrogen, it is called by the form - (alpha). Demikianpula vice versa if the hydroxyl groups positioned on top of hydrogen, called by the form (beta), consider Figure 14.9 and Figure 14.10. Glucose in the water will form a balance in two forms, namely forms of alpha-D-glucose and beta-D-Glucose, with the composition 36: 64. The process of change of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-Glucose or otherwise referred to as called mutarotasi.Glucose is the main source of energy for living things. Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream through the digestive tract. Most of the glucose is then directly to fuel brain cells, while others to the liver and muscles, which store it as glycogen.
 
 Figure 14.11. Fructose

Glycogen is the source of reserve energy to be converted back into glucose when needed again. Overhaul of carbohydrates that produces a form other than glucose such as fructose and galactose, to be transported to the liver, and converted or changed into glucose. Fructose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms is an isomer of glucose, but with the aldehyde group.Fructose is sweeter than glucose and is widely available in fruits. To distinguish the molecular structure of glucose to fructose, can look at Figure 14.11.
Glucose also has the advantage that is not easy to react nonspecifically with a protein amino group by way of reducing it. This reaction is known as glycosylation that may damage the function of many enzymes. This is because glucose is in the form of the less reactive cyclic isomer. Some of the effects of protein glycosylation is acute complications such as diabetes, kidney failure, and peripheral nerve damage.
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